Tensile Strength to Two-Ply
The strength along the length of a fiber.
Visual and tactile surface characteristics of carpet pile, including such aesthetic and structural elements as high-low and cut and loop patterning, yarn twist, pile erectness or layover, harshness or softness to the touch, luster, and yarn dimensions.
A carpet's ability to withstand crushing and matting. Although accelerated test methods do not directly compare with actual floor performance, they do give an indication of a carpet's ability to withstand crushing and matting.
A woven or tufted carpet style having all tufts in a loop form, usually with two or three pile heights.
Visible individual twisted cut yarn ends in a carpet surface. If, under heavy wear and pivoting, the tufts have been splayed open, the carpet is said to have lost its tip definition.
Shaving off tufted high loops in the finishing process to create a cut and uncut texture or pattern. Generally less definite pattern than random-sheared.
Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)
A compound that is used as the primary delusterant in fiber.
Weight (ounces) per square yard of the total carpet pile yarn, primary and secondary backings and coatings.
Continuous synthetic fiber filaments (without twist) collected in a loose rope-like form and held together by crimp. Tow is the form before fiber is cut into staple.
A cluster of yarns drawn through a fabric and projecting from the surface in the form of cut yarns or loops. (See also Cut pile, Cut and loop pile, Level loop pile, Loop pile and Multilevel loop pile.)
The force (usually measured in pounds) required to pull a tuft from the carpet backing. Also known as tuft lock. For loop pile, ASTM Method D1335 (tuft bind test) should result in a minimum 10-lb. average. For cut pile, ASTM Method D1335 (tuft bind test) should result in a minimum 5-lb. average.
Carpet produced by a tufting machine instead of a loom.
A method of carpet manufacture in which surface yarns are sewn or "punched" through a primary backing material. The needles of the tufting machine form loops which are hooked by loopers on the underside of the backing material and which remain loops in level or textured loop carpet. Alternatively, the loops are tufted and cut with knives to create cut pile carpet. The tufted fabric is then coated with an adhesive to adhere a secondary back to provide durability and stability.
Turns Per Inch (TPI)
The number of times two or more yarns have been plied in an inch length. Also known as input ply twist.
Turns Per Tuft (TPT)
The number of twists in the pile yarn above the primary backing. A more accurate way of measuring relative twist level in cut pile carpets. Generally, the greater the turns per tuft, the better the performance.
A yarn term describing the number of turns per inch and direction of twist of either the singles or plies around their axes. Twist direction is either right or left handed, also called "Z" or "S" twist. Most carpet yarns have 3.5 to 6.0 TPI. The performance of a cut pile carpet is dependent on the twist in the pile yarn. Spun yarns need more twist than filament yarns for good performance. For moderate or heavy commercial use cut pile, it is suggested that continuous filament have a minimum of 4.50 TPI while spun yarns have a minimum ply twist of 4.75 TPI.
Most common yarn ply. Two single yarns are twisted together, then heatset to maintain their twisted configuration. Can be used in either cut or loop pile carpet.
Carpet Industry Terms and Glossary
For your convenience, the following are terms and definitions relating to carpet manufacturing.