Sawtooth Crimp to Synthetic Fiber
Also called zigzag crimp, this is a two-dimensional crimp that gives yarn cohesion, texture and bulk.
A cut pile carpet texture of plied yarns in dense configuration with surface yarns that are even across the face. The yarns in saxony are thicker and have more tip definition than in a plush.
Woven or nonwoven fabric reinforcement laminated to the back of the tufted carpet, usually with latex adhesive, to enhance dimensional stability, strength, stretch resistance, lay-flat, stiffness, and hand.
The edge of the carpet.
Refers to a pattern in a carpet which continues straight across the installed carpet at right angles to the seams.
Apparent color shade difference between areas of the same carpet caused by normal wear and/or random difference in pile lay direction. It is a characteristic of cut pile carpet. It is not a defect.
Finishing process in carpet manufacturing to create a smooth carpet face. The shearing process can also be used to create texture as in random shearing.
One yarn end of either continuous filament yarn or spun yarn. Singles yarn is most often plied (or twisted) with additional singles yarns to create a "two-ply," "three-ply" or "four-ply" yarn bundle.
Skein Dyed Yarn
Singles yarn that has been skein dyed. Yarn is wound in skeins and dyed in dye vats. This method yields small to mid-sized dye lots, but has custom color advantages.
An intermediate stage in the production of spun yarns from staple fiber. It is a large, soft, untwisted strand or rope of fibers produced by carding or pin drafting.
Smoke Chamber Test
Method that assesses smoke generating characteristics of a carpet sample due to pyrolysis and combustion by measuring the attenuation of a light beam by smoke accumulating in a closed chamber under controlled conditions.
The ability of a fiber to mask or "hide" the presence of soil.
The ability of a carpet fiber to resist dry soil and maintain its original appearance after intermittent or restorative cleanings. The amount of soil resistance can be determined by fluorine analysis.
The device (similar to a showerhead) which forms strands of filament as molten polymer is pumped through. It is at this stage that the fiber cross section, fiber size and the number of filaments in a yarn bundle (for continuous filament) are determined.
The conversion of staple fiber into spun yarn.
Yarn that is made up of short lengths of fiber, either synthetic staple or natural fiber.
The ability of a carpet fiber to resist the absorption of stain and maintain its original appearance. For carpets to resist stains, some manufacturers use a topical stain resist treatment that may be removed after hot water extraction.
Also called staple. Short lengths of fiber which have been chopped from continuous filament in lengths of 4" to 7 1/2". Staple fiber must be further processed (spun) into yarn before it can be tufted/woven into carpet. Nylon and polyester are examples of synthetic fibers available in staple form.
Static Control Test
A measurement of the amount of static discharge that occurs under specified conditions.
Buildup of electrostatic energy on a carpet and the subsequent discharge to a conductive ground such as a file cabinet. Various static control conductive systems are used in commercial carpet to dissipate static charge before it builds to the human sensitivity threshold, which is 3.5kV.
Stitches Per Inch (SPI)
Number of yarn tufts per running inch along the length of the carpet (as opposed to the gauge which is the number of stitches across the width of the carpet).
Colored spun yarn produced from fibers dyed in staple form.
The perimeter of an individual fiber filament or multiple filaments.
Technical measure of the tendency of a surface—in this case, the carpet yarn—to repel molecules of another substance. Low surface energy refers to a repelling action.
Produced by man-made means, not available in nature in the same form.
Carpet Industry Terms and Glossary
For your convenience, the following are terms and definitions relating to carpet manufacturing.