Back Coating to Bulking
An adhesive applied to the back of a carpet to lock pile yarn tufts into a carpet backing, bonding a secondary backing to a primary backing. This increases the fabric body or stiffness, and increases the carpets dimensional stability.
Materials comprising the back of the carpet, as opposed to the carpet pile or face.
— For Fusion Bonded Carpets: Backing material for fusion-bonded carpet is a system of layered vinyl or plastic compound and fiberglass scrim for dimensional stability.
— For Tufted Carpets: Two backings, a Primary back consisting of a woven or nonwoven fabric in which the pile yarn is inserted by the tufting needles. Also a Secondary back, which is fabric laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability.
— For Woven Carpets: Backings of woven carpets are the "construction yarns" comprising chain warp, stuffer warp, and shot or fill, which are interwoven with the face yarn during carpet fabric formation.
A fabric into which a pile yarn is inserted or a reinforcing layer which is adhered to the reverse side of a fabric.
— Attached cushion: Padding, such as foam rubber or polyurethane, that is made as an integral part of the backing.
— Conventional backing: Carpet with a primary and secondary latex-laminated woven or nonwoven fabric.
— PVC hard-backed or closed-cell PVC (polyvinyl chloride): Used mostly in carpet tile or 6' wide goods due to its weight and stiffness. PVC gives a stiff, stable backing with little cushioning but excellent tuft bind and stability.
— Thermoplastic: A molten resin process that permanently adheres the primary and secondary backing.
— Unitary: A single lamination of fabric backing with high rubber content latex or hot-melt resin compound for increased tuft bind. Used primarily with loop pile carpet.
— Urethane (Polyurethane): A polymeric resin applied by the carpet mill in the finishing process. In the heat and curing chamber it reacts and creates a foam-like texture. This backing encapsulates the yarn for extra tuft bind with a cushion attached.
A container (bag, sack, square, box, package) of anywhere from 650-850 lbs. of staple fibers, wrapped and ready to be shipped to the yarn spinner or carpet mill with yarn-spinning capacity.
An abbreviation for Bulked Continuous Filament yarn referring to synthetic fibers in a continuous form. BCF yarn can be used in cut or loop pile construction.
A large cylinder or spool on which carpet yarns, usually pre-dyed, are wound prior to feeding onto tufting, weaving or fusion bonding equipment.
Beam dyeing machine
A machine for dyeing yarns that have been wound onto a special beam that has evenly perforated holes along its barrel. The dye is forced through the barrel into the yarn from inside to outside and vice versa.
Dyeing of tufted greige carpet in a large vat of dye liquor. In this process, the carpet roll is sewn into a loop and then is continuously rotated and immersed in the heated vat for several hours. Most commonly used for cut pile carpet, it offers good custom color flexibility. (See "Dye methods.")
A loop pile design originally comprised of natural colored, bulky wool yarns in a woven construction. Contempory berber is constructed primarily of bulky, loop pile, nylon, or polypropylene yarns in a tufted construction. This style originates from a nomadic North African tribe called the Berbers.
Loss of color by a fabric or yarn when immersed in water or a solvent, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of dyes of poor quality. Fabrics that bleed will stain white or lightly shaded fabrics that come in contact with them when wet.
A mixture of two or more fibers or yarns.
The mixing of staple fibers before they are carded, drafted and spun into yarn. Blending is done for consistency in the final yarn and is a critical step to avoid "streaks" in a carpet.
The opposite of dull or matte when describing luster.
Denotes carpet tufted or woven in widths six feet or greater.
A carpet or rug in which a raised pattern or engraved effect is formed using heavy twisted yarn tufts on a ground of straight fibers.
The process of a textured or latent crimp yarn to achieve maximum bulk. Carpet fibers develop maximum bulk during wet processing such as dyeing.
Also known as crimping, texturizing or lofting. Bulking imparts texture/fullness to the fiber or yarn during production. Bulking is done to increase the coverage the yarn will have in the carpet face. Bulking also adds to fiber resiliency. See "Texturizing."
Carpet Industry Terms and Glossary
For your convenience, the following are terms and definitions relating to carpet manufacturing.