ESD and Anti Static Flooring Terminology
Here are several terms you might find when researching esd flooring and static control floors.
Electrical Resistance: The measure of a material's ability to conduct a charge to ground.
Electrification Time: The time for the resistance measuring instrument to stabilize at the value of the upper resistance range verification fixture.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD): The rapid, spontaneous transfer of electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field. Note: Usually, the charge flows through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach one another. Details of such processes, such as the rate of the charge transfer, are described in specific electrostatic discharge models.
Electrostatic Discharge Ground: The point, electrodes, bus bar, metal strips, or other system of conductors that form a path from a statically charged person or object to ground.
Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity (ESDS): The ESD level that causes component failure. (Note: See also electrostatic discharge susceptibility.)
EMI: (Electromagnetic Interference) - the transmission of a rogue electrical signal, caused by ESD, and received by a computer or electrical device and has the potential to cause disruption and downtime. An example of EMI is the static interference you may hear over an automobile radio, caused by lightning, when you drive in the vicinity of an electrical storm.
EOS/ESD Association: (based in Rome, NY) - Four thousand members representing the largest trade association for the ESD issues. The association assists in writing and setting industry standards and test methodologies and publishing the latest research and technology on ESD.
ESD: The abbreviation for electrostatic discharge. In layman's terms: an electrical event that takes place when two conductors with different electrical potential make contact. ESD events occur when people walk across various forms of flooring and then they touch or approach computers and sensitive electronic devices. ESD should not be identified with shocks or zaps. Although shocks and zaps are ESD events, they are the result of at least three thousand five hundred (3500) volt discharges. An ESD event as low as 20 volts can disrupt electronic components. Because of this extremely low voltage, the event can go completely undetected.
ESD Carpet Tile: Used to control the accumulation of electrostatic discharge on people, chairs and tables. A modular floor tile comprised of conductive carpet and a conductive thermoplastic backing. Usually manufactured using conductive fibers woven into the carpet face. A floor tile designed to provide an electrical path to ground for the dissipation of unwanted static electricity charges in applications where electronics are stored, manufactured, used or handled. An ESD grade flooring material will remain conductive at any relative humidity level. Not to be confused with computer grade or low Kv carpet materials.
ESD Event: (A static discharge or spark) ESD events range across a broad spectrum from microscopic discharges far below the threshold of human sensitivity to violent static shocks like the ones you may feel when you touch a metal door handle on a dry day. ESD events can cause damage to sensitive devices.
ESD Floors: This is a catch-all term for any type of floorcovering with antistatic or conductive properties. This description is usually used during the investigation phase of static control flooring materials. Referring to a conductive or antistatic flooring material as an ESD floor is not a sufficient reference for defining certifiable electrical properties. The proper way to specify a flooring material used in sensitive electronic environment requires stating the resistance to ground which is measured in ohms.
ESD protective: A property of materials capable of one or more of the following: preventing the generation of static electricity, dissipating electrostatic charges over its surface or volume, or providing shielding from ESD or electrostatic fields.
ESD sensitivity: See electrostatic discharge sensitivity and electrostatic discharge susceptibility.
ESD S 7.1: The ESD Association Standard 7.1 - "Resistance Characteristics of Materials." A generally accepted test method used to determine conductivity of flooring and other material surfaces.
ESD Withstand Voltage: The maximum level that does not cause component failure.
ESDS: Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible. (See Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible and Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity.)
Evaluation Testing: Stringent testing of a wrist strap to determine its electrical and mechanical performance abilities. Data are in the form of values from laboratory testing.
Excessively Porous Subfloor: Any subfloor surface that has an extremely rough surface, such as concrete that has recently been shot-blasted (blastracked), any subflooring that has leftover residue of old latex adhesive, recently skimcoated, rough wood subflooring, etc. Such subfloor conditions can create bonding issues and lead to the necessity of using sealers or a greater amount of adhesive to properly adhere floorcoverings.
Failure Threshold: The supply current value that when exceeded, is considered to have failed the device is called the failure Threshold Current.
Floor Contacting Surface (FCS): That part of the foot grounder that makes electrical contact to the grounding surface.
Flooring/Foot Grounder System Resistance: The total resistance of the foot grounder, when worn by the person, while standing on a static control floor.
Foot Grounder: Personnel grounding device worn on the shoe.
Foot Grounder System Resistance: The measure of the total resistance of the foot grounder when worn by the person standing on a stainless steel plate.
Ground: In electrical terms, ground is the safe point of discharge of unwanted static electricity. Ground represents "zero electrical potential." When something is grounded, it's neutral; it has no charge. Attaching a conductive floor to ground ensures that the static charges will be diverted to the earth through the conductive floor system. Typical grounds include: electrical conduit, building steel, copper bus bars and steel rods buried in the earth.
Grounded Floor: Any floor with electrically conductive properties that is attached to either electrical or earth ground. Grounding of conductive or dissipative floors is usually achieved by physically attaching the ESD flooring solution (conductive or dissipative epoxy coating, conductive or dissipative carpeting or carpet tiles, conductive or dissipative vinyl tiles or sheet goods, conductive or dissipative rubber tiles or sheet goods) to a certified ground connection using copper strips or grounding wires. The most common methods of grounding involve the combination of conductive adhesive for securing the floor and copper strips attaching the adhesive with the electrical ground connection in a building.
Ground Lead: The portion of the wrist strap, which provides flexibility of movement while completing the electrical circuit between the cuff at one end and a ground system at the other.
Ground Strap: (1) A conductor intended to provide an electrical path to ground. (2) An item used by personnel with a specified resistance, intended to provide a path to ground. Groundable point A designated connection location or assembly used on an electrostatic discharge protective material or device that is intended to accommodate electrical connection from the device to an appropriate electrical ground.
Groundable Point ESD Protective Floor Material: A point on the floor material that is intended to accommodate an electrical connection from the floor material to an appropriate electrical ground.
Grounding Resistance: The total resistance from any given point in an electrically conductive path to the grounding electrode.
Hard Ground: A connection to ground through a wire or other conductor that has very little or nearly no resistance (impedance) to ground.
HBM ESD Tester: The human body model electrostatic discharge tester.
Human Body Model: An electrostatic discharge circuit that meets the set model values by conforming to waveform criteria specified ESD-S5.1, characterizing the discharge from the fingertip of a typical human being.
Human Body Model ESD: An ESD event meeting the waveform criteria specified in this standard, approximating the discharge form the fingertip of a typical human being.
Human Body Model Electrostatic Discharge: An electrostatic discharge event meeting the waveform criteria specified in ESD S5.1, approximating the discharge from the fingertip of a typical human being.
Human Body Model Electrostatic Discharge Tester: Equipment that applies Human Body Model electrostatic discharges to a component.
Human Sensitivity: The threshold of human sensitivity to ESD is 3.5 kV.
Carpet Industry Terms and Glossary
For your convenience, the following are terms and definitions relating to carpet manufacturing.
Having trouble deciding which is better: Anti static flooring - conductive flooring or static dissipative flooring?
Try looking at this question from a visual perspective on our static
dissipative versus conductive flooring page.
Whether you are looking for vinyl flooring, SDT, PVC, two part epoxy coatings, ESD paint, carpet tile or ESD rubber flooring, you need to know which anti static range is right for you. Choosing the right range will determine how long your static control floors will perform.