ESD and Anti Static Flooring Terminology
Here are several terms you might find when researching esd flooring and static control floors.
AATCC 134: (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorist), Electrostatic propensity of carpets test methodology measures the floors tendency to generate a charge. Simply stated, it measures the amount of static generated by a Neolyte shoe sole stepping on a carpet surface in a controlled room environment at 72 degrees Fahrenheit and 20% R.H.
ANSI/ESD S20.20-1999: Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices covers the requirements necessary to design, establish, implement, and maintain an ESD control program to protect electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment susceptible to ESD damage from Human Body Model (HBM) discharges greater than or equal to 100 volts.
Antistatic Bi-component: a type of yarn commonly found in most commercial and household carpets. The term bi-component refers to the co-extrusion of two materials within the same yarn strand. The internal cross-section of the yarn contains carbon while the surrounding fibers are composed of standard insulative nylon. The bi-component yarn provides an overall reduction in static generationnot a path to ground. Because the outer nylon insulates the internal conductive element, bi-component yarns do not discharge or conduct static electricity. Bi-component yarns cannot be grounded and are not suitable for static control in areas where computers are used.
Antistatic Carpet: The term antistatic refers to a condition where static generation is inhibited during contact and separation with a different material. In general, antistatic carpet is any carpet product that will generate less static electricity than standard carpet. Antistatic carpet is not conductive and it is not possible to ground anti-static carpet. Antistatic carpet usually contains bi-component yarns. The reason for specifying antistatic carpet is to establish a space that will be free of static shocks, or zaps. Most new antistatic carpet will prevent shocks as long as the relative humidity (RH) is above 25%. Anti static carpet should NOT be confused with conductive or ESD carpet. Antistatic is not a permanent property.
Anti Static Flooring: The term antistatic refers to a condition where static generation is inhibited during contact and separation with a different material. Anti static flooring can either be static dissipative or static conductive. (See also, Dissipative Tile)
Auxilliary Ground: A separate supplemental grounding conductor for use other than general equipment grounding.
Barrier Strip: A device or apparatus that consists of a metal strip and connectors or screws that allow termination and connection of wires or conductors from various components of an electrostatic discharge protected workstation.
Body Contacting Mechanism (BCM): The part of the foot grounder that makes electrical contact with the body.
Building Related Illness (BRI): Term used when symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants. A 1984 World Health Organization Committee report suggested that up to 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may be the subject of excessive complaints related to indoor air quality (IAQ). Often this condition is temporary, but some buildings have long-term problems. Frequently, problems result when a building is operated or maintained in a manner that is inconsistent with its original design or prescribed operating procedures. Sometimes indoor air problems are a result of poor building design or occupant activities. In contrast to SICK Building Syndrome.
Class 0 for Manufacturing: Please note - The term Class 0 has not been defined for manufacturing applications by any industry standard. Recent surveys have shown that manufacturing failure rates escalate exponentially for devices with ESD withstand voltages below 200 volts for either HBM (human body model) or CDM (charged device model). MM is intentionally omitted from this definition since it is largely redundant to HBM. It is also vitally important for the manufacturing process to have a well defined trigger for risk assessments of ultra-sensitive components. These risk assessments involve verification of manufacturing process capability as well as for any risks that may be passed on to customers. A working definition for a Class 0 devices is any component that fails below 200 volts for either HBM or CDM.
Common Point Ground: (1) A grounded device where two or more conductors are bonded. (2) A system or method for connecting two or more grounding conductors to the same electrical potential.
Compliance Verification (Periodic Testing) Equipment: An instrument or collection of instruments that provide an indication or measurement. It may or may not be repeatable or accurate. This equipment is typically used for indications of pass or fail.
Computer Grade Carpet: Computer grade carpet is the predecessor to conductive carpet. Computer grade carpet was designed during the infancy of the information age and contains a high density of bi-component yarns. Like all anti-static carpet, it cannot be grounded. The antistatic properties of computer grade carpet are usually described by obsolete standards, such as the IBM/Burroughs standard which grades the carpet by its kV rating (see low kV). A carpet specified for usage around computers should be rated by both kV rating and resistance to ground (measured in OHMS).
Conductive: refers to the ability of a material to conduct a charge to ground and is usually indicated by an electrical resistance range measured in ohms of a minimum of 2.5 x 104, (25,000 ohms), to a maximum of 1.0 x 106, (1 million ohms)
Conductive Fibers: Fibers capable of conducting electricity to ground. Most conductive fibers contain carbon, graphite or stainless steel. Conductive carpets used by the computer industry are carbon-coated on the exterior of the fiber. External conductivity allows for static charges to make contact with the fiber's conductive element and then safely discharge to a ground source, such as electrical conduit. Carbon fibers are inverted bi-component fibers. Conductivity is a permanent property.
Conductive Flooring: The term conductive floor is often confused with the term static dissipative. Conductive floors are classified based upon their electrical resistance to ground. Electrical resistance is measured in ohms of resistance. The resistance to ground of a conductive floor is usually defined as < 1.0 X 106 ohms measured per ANSI/ESD 7.1 Conductive flooring meets all three recommended electrical parameters of ANSI/ESD S20.20-2007. A type of flooring intended to prevent, mitigate, dissipate, conduct, remove or ground excessive static electricity charges on people, furniture, mobile carts and equipment. Static conductive flooring should not be used near or under energized equipment. Conductive flooring should not be considered as a superior resistance range versus static dissipative range. Always consult industry standards as well as local building and safety codes before installing conductive flooring. Depending on the application, ground fault interuptors may be required in spaces equipped with conductive flooring. Conductive flooring should never be installed in dispatch areas, call centers or flight control rooms.
Conductive Flooring Material: A floor material that has a resistance to ground of less than 1.0 x 106 ohms.
Conductive Material: A material that has a surface resistivity less than 1 x 105 ohms/square or a volume resistivity less than 1 x 104 ohm-cm.
Conductive Tile: A floor tile material used for the mitigation of electrostatic discharge (ESD) composed of carpet, synthetic rubber or vinyl composition. Meeting the same electrical parameters described as "conductive flooring." Conductive tiles are usually combined with conductive adhesive and grounded to either earth ground or electrical ground.
Conductor: A material with low electrical resistance, (a conductor), that will safely attract an electrical charge to ground. Examples of conductors are water, copper, aluminum and carbon. Practical examples of conductors are a lightning rod and a copper wire.
Conductivity: (1) The ratio of the current per unit area (current density) to the electric field in a material. Conductivity is expressed in units of siemens/meter. (2) In non-technical usage, the ability to conduct current.
Current Limiting Resistance: A resistance value incorporated in series with the wrist strap's electrical path to ground. This resistance limits electrical current that could pass through the ground cord in the event of inadvertent user contact with electrical potential.
DOP or DEHP (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate [bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate): As defined by mindfully.org: "DOP or DEHP is the compound plasticizer Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate...[and] is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (NTP 217,1982;IARC V.29,1982;IARC S.7,1987).When administered in the diet, di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female rats, liver neoplastic nodules or hepatocellular carcinomas in male rats, and hepatocllular carcinomas in mice of both sexes."
Decay Time: The time required for an electrostatic potential to be reduced to a given percentage (usually 10%) of its initial value. (See Static Decay Test.)
Dense Networked Office: Area within a building that uses LAN based networks in 8' x 8' furniture cubicles, or less.
Dielectric: An insulating material that can sustain an electric field with little current flow.
Dielectric Strength: The maximum electric field that a dielectric can sustain.
Discharge Time: The time necessary for a voltage (due to an electrostatic charge) to decay from an initial value to some arbitrarily chosen final value.
Dissipative Tile: A floor tile material used for the mitigation of electrostatic discharge (ESD). Usually composed of carpet, synthetic rubber or vinyl composition.It is important to differentiate between the terms SDT and static dissipative. By definition, a static dissipative floor tile inherently meets the electrical properties of "static dissipative flooring" without the use of antistatic waxes, finishes and glazes. A static dissipative tile is not necessarily antistatic and should be carefully evaluated in applications where special controlled footwear will not be used. Static dissipative vinyl is a static generator in combination with people and standard footwear. Static dissipative rubber inhibits the generation of static in combination with people wearing standard footwear.
Carpet Industry Terms and Glossary
For your convenience, the following are terms and definitions relating to carpet manufacturing.
Having trouble deciding which is better: Anti static flooring - conductive flooring or static dissipative flooring?
Try looking at this question from a visual perspective on
our static dissipative versus
conductive flooring page.
Whether you are looking for vinyl flooring, SDT, PVC, two part epoxy coatings, ESD paint, carpet tile or ESD rubber flooring, you need to know which anti static range is right for you. Choosing the right range will determine how long your static control floors will perform.