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Flooring Terminology & Definitions

Use the tabs to locate definitions for common ESD flooring terms and words.


AATCC 134: (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorist), Electrostatic propensity of carpets test methodology measures the floors tendency to generate a charge. Simply stated, it measures the amount of static generated by a Neolyte shoe sole stepping on a carpet surface in a controlled room environment at 72 degrees Fahrenheit and 20% R.H.

ANSI/ESD S20.20-1999: Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices covers the requirements necessary to design, establish, implement, and maintain an ESD control program to protect electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment susceptible to ESD damage from Human Body Model (HBM) discharges greater than or equal to 100 volts.

Antistatic Bi-component: a type of yarn commonly found in most commercial and household carpets. The term bi-component refers to the co-extrusion of two materials within the same yarn strand. The internal cross-section of the yarn contains carbon while the surrounding fibers are composed of standard insulative nylon. The bi-component yarn provides an overall reduction in static generation—not a path to ground. Because the outer nylon insulates the internal conductive element, bi-component yarns do not discharge or conduct static electricity. Bi-component yarns cannot be grounded and are not suitable for static control in areas where computers are used.

Antistatic Carpet: The term antistatic refers to a condition where static generation is inhibited during contact and separation with a different material. In general, antistatic carpet is any carpet product that will generate less static electricity than standard carpet. Antistatic carpet is not conductive and it is not possible to ground anti-static carpet. Antistatic carpet usually contains bi-component yarns. The reason for specifying antistatic carpet is to establish a space that will be free of static shocks, or zaps. Most new antistatic carpet will prevent shocks as long as the relative humidity (RH) is above 25%. Anti static carpet should NOT be confused with conductive or ESD carpet. Antistatic is not a permanent property.

Anti Static Flooring: The term antistatic refers to a condition where static generation is inhibited during contact and separation with a different material. Anti static flooring can either be static dissipative or static conductive. (See also, Dissipative Tile)

Auxilliary Ground: A separate supplemental grounding conductor for use other than general equipment grounding.

Barrier Strip: A device or apparatus that consists of a metal strip and connectors or screws that allow termination and connection of wires or conductors from various components of an electrostatic discharge protected workstation.

Body Contacting Mechanism (BCM): The part of the foot grounder that makes electrical contact with the body.

Building Related Illness (BRI): Term used when symptoms of diagnosable illness are identified and can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants. A 1984 World Health Organization Committee report suggested that up to 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may be the subject of excessive complaints related to indoor air quality (IAQ). Often this condition is temporary, but some buildings have long-term problems. Frequently, problems result when a building is operated or maintained in a manner that is inconsistent with its original design or prescribed operating procedures. Sometimes indoor air problems are a result of poor building design or occupant activities. In contrast to SICK Building Syndrome.

Charged Devide Model: simulates static discharge from a static sensitive device to a conductor.

Class 0 for Manufacturing: Please note - The term Class 0 has not been defined for manufacturing applications by any industry standard.  Recent surveys have shown that manufacturing failure rates escalate exponentially for devices with ESD withstand voltages below 200 volts for either HBM (human body model) or CDM (charged device model). MM is intentionally omitted from this definition since it is largely redundant to HBM. It is also vitally important for the manufacturing process to have a well defined trigger for risk assessments of ultra-sensitive components. These risk assessments involve verification of manufacturing process capability as well as for any risks that may be passed on to customers. A working definition for a Class 0 devices is any component that fails below 200  volts for either HBM or CDM.  

Common Point Ground: (1) A grounded device where two or more conductors are bonded. (2) A system or method for connecting two or more grounding conductors to the same electrical potential.

Compliance Verification (Periodic Testing) Equipment: An instrument or collection of instruments that provide an indication or measurement. It may or may not be repeatable or accurate. This equipment is typically used for indications of pass or fail.

Computer Grade Carpet: Computer grade carpet is the predecessor to conductive carpet. Computer grade carpet was designed during the infancy of the information age and contains a high density of bi-component yarns. Like all anti-static carpet, it cannot be grounded. The antistatic properties of computer grade carpet are usually described by obsolete standards, such as the IBM/Burroughs standard which grades the carpet by its kV rating (see low kV). A carpet specified for usage around computers should be rated by both kV rating and resistance to ground (measured in OHMS).

Conductive: refers to the ability of a material to conduct a charge to ground and is usually indicated by an electrical resistance range measured in ohms of a minimum of 2.5 x 104, (25,000 ohms), to a maximum of 1.0 x 106, (1 million ohms)

Conductive Fibers: Fibers capable of conducting electricity to ground. Most conductive fibers contain carbon, graphite or stainless steel. Conductive carpets used by the computer industry are carbon-coated on the exterior of the fiber. External conductivity allows for static charges to make contact with the fiber's conductive element and then safely discharge to a ground source, such as electrical conduit. Carbon fibers are inverted bi-component fibers. Conductivity is a permanent property.

Conductive Flooring: The term conductive floor is often confused with the term static dissipative. Conductive floors are classified based upon their electrical resistance to ground. Electrical resistance is measured in ohms of resistance. The resistance to ground of a conductive floor is usually defined as < 1.0 X 106 ohms measured per ANSI/ESD 7.1 Conductive flooring meets all three recommended electrical parameters of ANSI/ESD S20.20-2007. A type of flooring intended to prevent, mitigate, dissipate, conduct, remove or ground excessive static electricity charges on people, furniture, mobile carts and equipment. Static conductive flooring should not be used near or under energized equipment. Conductive flooring should not be considered as a superior resistance range versus static dissipative range. Always consult industry standards as well as local building and safety codes before installing conductive flooring. Depending on the application, ground fault interuptors may be required in spaces equipped with conductive flooring. Conductive flooring should never be installed in dispatch areas, call centers or flight control rooms.

Conductive Flooring Material: A floor material that has a resistance to ground of less than 1.0 x 106 ohms.

Conductive Material: A material that has a surface resistivity less than 1 x 105 ohms/square or a volume resistivity less than 1 x 104 ohm-cm.

Conductive Tile: A floor tile material used for the mitigation of electrostatic discharge (ESD) composed of carpet, synthetic rubber or vinyl composition. Meeting the same electrical parameters described as "conductive flooring." Conductive tiles are usually combined with conductive adhesive and grounded to either earth ground or electrical ground.

Conductor: A material with low electrical resistance, (a conductor), that will safely attract an electrical charge to ground. Examples of conductors are water, copper, aluminum and carbon. Practical examples of conductors are a lightning rod and a copper wire.

Conductivity: (1) The ratio of the current per unit area (current density) to the electric field in a material. Conductivity is expressed in units of siemens/meter. (2) In non-technical usage, the ability to conduct current.

Current Limiting Resistance: A resistance value incorporated in series with the wrist strap's electrical path to ground. This resistance limits electrical current that could pass through the ground cord in the event of inadvertent user contact with electrical potential.

DOP or DEHP (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate [bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate): As defined by mindfully.org: "DOP or DEHP is the compound plasticizer Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate...[and] is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals (NTP 217,1982;IARC V.29,1982;IARC S.7,1987).When administered in the diet, di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female rats, liver neoplastic nodules or hepatocellular carcinomas in male rats, and hepatocllular carcinomas in mice of both sexes."

Decay Time: The time required for an electrostatic potential to be reduced to a given percentage (usually 10%) of its initial value. (See Static Decay Test.)

Dense Networked Office: Area within a building that uses LAN based networks in 8' x 8' furniture cubicles, or less.

Dielectric: An insulating material that can sustain an electric field with little current flow.

Dielectric Strength: The maximum electric field that a dielectric can sustain.

Discharge Time: The time necessary for a voltage (due to an electrostatic charge) to decay from an initial value to some arbitrarily chosen final value.

Dissipative Floor Material: Floor material that has a resistance to ground between 1.0 x 106 and 1.0 x 109 ohms.

Dissipative Tile: A floor tile material used for the mitigation of electrostatic discharge (ESD). Usually composed of carpet, synthetic rubber or vinyl composition.It is important to differentiate between the terms SDT and static dissipative. By definition, a static dissipative floor tile inherently meets the electrical properties of "static dissipative flooring" without the use of antistatic waxes, finishes and glazes. A static dissipative tile is not necessarily antistatic and should be carefully evaluated in applications where special controlled footwear will not be used. Static dissipative vinyl is a static generator in combination with people and standard footwear. Static dissipative rubber inhibits the generation of static in combination with people wearing standard footwear.

Electrical Resistance: The measure of a material's ability to conduct a charge to ground.

Electrification Time: The time for the resistance measuring instrument to stabilize at the value of the upper resistance range verification fixture.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD): The rapid, spontaneous transfer of electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field. Note: Usually, the charge flows through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach one another. Details of such processes, such as the rate of the charge transfer, are described in specific electrostatic discharge models.

Electrostatic Discharge Ground: The point, electrodes, bus bar, metal strips, or other system of conductors that form a path from a statically charged person or object to ground.

Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity (ESDS): The ESD level that causes component failure. (Note: See also electrostatic discharge susceptibility.)

EMI: (Electromagnetic Interference) - the transmission of a rogue electrical signal, caused by ESD, and received by a computer or electrical device and has the potential to cause disruption and downtime. An example of EMI is the static interference you may hear over an automobile radio, caused by lightning, when you drive in the vicinity of an electrical storm.

EOS/ESD Association: (based in Rome, NY) - Four thousand members representing the largest trade association for the ESD issues. The association assists in writing and setting industry standards and test methodologies and publishing the latest research and technology on ESD.

ESD: The abbreviation for electrostatic discharge. In layman's terms: an electrical event that takes place when two conductors with different electrical potential make contact. ESD events occur when people walk across various forms of flooring and then they touch or approach computers and sensitive electronic devices. ESD should not be identified with shocks or zaps. Although shocks and zaps are ESD events, they are the result of at least three thousand five hundred (3500) volt discharges. An ESD event as low as 20 volts can disrupt electronic components. Because of this extremely low voltage, the event can go completely undetected.

ESD Carpet Tile: Used to control the accumulation of electrostatic discharge on people, chairs and tables. A modular floor tile comprised of conductive carpet and a conductive thermoplastic backing. Usually manufactured using conductive fibers woven into the carpet face. A floor tile designed to provide an electrical path to ground for the dissipation of unwanted static electricity charges in applications where electronics are stored, manufactured, used or handled. An ESD grade flooring material will remain conductive at any relative humidity level. Not to be confused with computer grade or low Kv carpet materials.

ESD Event: (A static discharge or spark) ESD events range across a broad spectrum from microscopic discharges far below the threshold of human sensitivity to violent static shocks like the ones you may feel when you touch a metal door handle on a dry day. ESD events can cause damage to sensitive devices.

ESD Floors: This is a catch-all term for any type of floorcovering with antistatic or conductive properties. This description is usually used during the investigation phase of static control flooring materials. Referring to a conductive or antistatic flooring material as an ESD floor is not a sufficient reference for defining certifiable electrical properties. The proper way to specify a flooring material used in sensitive electronic environment requires stating the resistance to ground which is measured in ohms.

ESD protective: A property of materials capable of one or more of the following: preventing the generation of static electricity, dissipating electrostatic charges over its surface or volume, or providing shielding from ESD or electrostatic fields.

ESD sensitivity: See electrostatic discharge sensitivity and electrostatic discharge susceptibility.

ESD S 7.1: The ESD Association Standard 7.1 - "Resistance Characteristics of Materials." A generally accepted test method used to determine conductivity of flooring and other material surfaces.

ESD Withstand Voltage: The maximum level that does not cause component failure.

ESDS: Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible. (See Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible and Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity.)

Evaluation Testing: Stringent testing of a wrist strap to determine its electrical and mechanical performance abilities. Data are in the form of values from laboratory testing.

Excessively Porous Subfloor: Any subfloor surface that has an extremely rough surface, such as concrete that has recently been shot-blasted (blastracked), any subflooring that has leftover residue of old latex adhesive, recently skimcoated, rough wood subflooring, etc. Such subfloor conditions can create bonding issues and lead to the necessity of using sealers or a greater amount of adhesive to properly adhere floorcoverings.

Failure Threshold: The supply current value that when exceeded, is considered to have failed the device is called the failure Threshold Current.

Floor Contacting Surface (FCS): That part of the foot grounder that makes electrical contact to the grounding surface.

Flooring/Foot Grounder System Resistance: The total resistance of the foot grounder, when worn by the person, while standing on a static control floor.

Foot Grounder: Personnel grounding device worn on the shoe.

Foot Grounder System Resistance: The measure of the total resistance of the foot grounder when worn by the person standing on a stainless steel plate.

Ground: In electrical terms, ground is the safe point of discharge of unwanted static electricity. Ground represents "zero electrical potential." When something is grounded, it's neutral; it has no charge. Attaching a conductive floor to ground ensures that the static charges will be diverted to the earth through the conductive floor system. Typical grounds include: electrical conduit, building steel, copper bus bars and steel rods buried in the earth.

Grounded Floor: Any floor with electrically conductive properties that is attached to either electrical or earth ground. Grounding of conductive or dissipative floors is usually achieved by physically attaching the ESD flooring solution (conductive or dissipative epoxy coating, conductive or dissipative carpeting or carpet tiles, conductive or dissipative vinyl tiles or sheet goods, conductive or dissipative rubber tiles or sheet goods) to a certified ground connection using copper strips or grounding wires. The most common methods of grounding involve the combination of conductive adhesive for securing the floor and copper strips attaching the adhesive with the electrical ground connection in a building.

Ground Lead: The portion of the wrist strap, which provides flexibility of movement while completing the electrical circuit between the cuff at one end and a ground system at the other.

Ground Strap: (1) A conductor intended to provide an electrical path to ground. (2) An item used by personnel with a specified resistance, intended to provide a path to ground. Groundable point A designated connection location or assembly used on an electrostatic discharge protective material or device that is intended to accommodate electrical connection from the device to an appropriate electrical ground.

Groundable Point ESD Protective Floor Material: A point on the floor material that is intended to accommodate an electrical connection from the floor material to an appropriate electrical ground.

Grounding Resistance: The total resistance from any given point in an electrically conductive path to the grounding electrode.

Hard Ground: A connection to ground through a wire or other conductor that has very little or nearly no resistance (impedance) to ground.

HBM ESD Tester: The human body model electrostatic discharge tester.

Human Body Model: An electrostatic discharge circuit that meets the set model values by conforming to waveform criteria specified ESD-S5.1, characterizing the discharge from the fingertip of a typical human being.

Human Body Model ESD: An ESD event meeting the waveform criteria specified in this standard, approximating the discharge form the fingertip of a typical human being.

Human Body Model Electrostatic Discharge: An electrostatic discharge event meeting the waveform criteria specified in ESD S5.1, approximating the discharge from the fingertip of a typical human being.

Human Body Model Electrostatic Discharge Tester: Equipment that applies Human Body Model electrostatic discharges to a component.

Human Sensitivity: The threshold of human sensitivity to ESD is 3.5 kV.

Impedance: The total opposition (i.e., resistance or reactance) a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current. It is measured in ohms and the lower the ohmic value, the better the quality of the conductor.

Indoor air quality (IAQ)
A term used to describe the quality of the air breathed by occupants of an indoor or enclosed environment.

Installed Cost: The actual cost for materials and labor that also includes floor preparation, shutdown or loss of use of space, removal of old flooring and any procedures such as initial required cleaning, vapor test or vapor barrier applications.

Insulative: The property of "insulation" refers to a material's ability to store as opposed to conduct. An insulator is the opposite of a conductor. A good example of an insulator is a stone hearth. Although the hearth stores heat from a hot fire, it can be touched without danger because the heat is retained by the hearth and not transferred to the skin (as opposed to touching the metal grille on the same fireplace). In the case of carpet construction, all fibers are insulators unless a conductive coating is applied to the external perimeter of the fibers. Insulated fibers will both generate and store static electricity. They cannot be grounded, even if a copper wire is attached to them.

Insulative Material: A material having a surface resistivity of at least 1 x 1012 ohms/square or 1 x 1011 ohm- cm volume resistivity.

Insulator: A material with high electrical resistance, (an insulator), will not conduct a charge to ground. Examples of insulators are plastic, rubber, vinyl, and wood. A practical example of an insulator is the rubber or vinyl casings around common electrical wires.

Internal Dye Variability
The change in dye uniformity across diameter and along the length of a yarn's individual filaments. Affects appearance of the dyed product and is a function of fiber, dye, dyeing process, and dye bath characteristics.

International Gray Scale for Color Change
A standard comparison to rate degrees of color change from 5 (no change) to 1 (severe change).

International Gray Scale for Staining
A standard comparison to rate degrees of staining from 5 (no stain) to 1 (severe stain).

ISO (The International Organization for Standardization)
A non-governmental, worldwide organization whose work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards.

J-cut
Uneven cutting of the loops in cut-pile carpets caused by poor adjustment of the knives and hooks or excessive yarn tension.

Jet
A device used to bulk yarns by introducing curls, coils and loops that are formed by action of a high velocity stream usually air or steam.

Jute
A natural fiber, native to India, which can be shredded and spun into yarn. Jute yarns are used for backing in woven carpets, or itself woven into sheets and used as secondary backing on tufted carpet. In many applications, jute is being replaced by fiberglass, polypropylene or other synthetic fibers.

Knitting
A fabrication process comprised of interlacing yarns in a series of connected loops with needles, like weaving. Carpet produced by knitting is generally categorized as woven carpet. In carpet knitting, pile and backing are produced at the same time using multiple sets of needles in one operation.

Kraftcord
A tightly twisted yarn made from plant fiber, used as a backing yarn.

Kuster
A trade name of a manufacturer of continuous dyeing machines which apply dye to tufted carpet. (See "Continuous dyeing.")

kV: A measurement of electrical voltage. The measurement stands for kilovolts or thousand of volts. Currently, the floor covering industry measures the static propensity of products by using a kV measurement.

Laboratory Evaluation Equipment: An instrument or collection of instruments that meet the criteria of a standard or standard test method that provides a measurement that is accurate and repeatable. This equipment is typically used to qualify materials, devices or procedures prior to acceptance and under controlled conditions.

LAN: An acronym for Local Area Network.

Latent Failure: A malfunction that occurs following a period of normal operation. Note: The failure may be attributable to an earlier electrostatic discharge event. The concept of latent failure is controversial and not totally accepted by all in the technical community.

Low kV: Low kV is a synonym for antistatic carpet. Low kV carpet will not generate as much static electricity as standard carpet. Low kV carpet reduces the shock hazards associated with walking on standard carpet. The typical human threshold for feeling a static zap is 3.5 kV or three thousand five hundred (3500) volts. Most low kV carpet will inhibit static sufficiently so the people do not feel painful shocks. Low kV carpet cannot be grounded and will not reduce static electricity when the humidity is low or after extended carpet wear.

Mission Critical: Literally, any operation that cannot tolerate intervention, compromise or shutdown during the performance of its critical function. Mission critical environments usually support health, safety, security and human welfare. These environments also monitor, store, support and communicate data that cannot be lost or corrupted without compromising their core function. Since all computer and communications systems are highly sensitive to static electricity, static events pose an internal threat to mission-critical operations, such as flight control towers, energy management operations, 911 centers, command centers, dispatch, control rooms, data storage centers, hospitals, stock exchanges, laboratories, university research facilities, computer rooms—any space where the loss or corruption of data cannot be tolerated. Conductive flooring is a mandatory element in mission critical environments, because it prevents and discharges static electricity before it becomes a problem.

NFPA 99: (National Fire Prevention Agency section 99), the NFPA-99 provides a test methodology for measuring the conductivity of flooring and other surfaces. This test was originally designed in the 1960's for use in hospital operating rooms that used explosive gases for anesthesia. Operating room surfaces were required to be conductive so that static fields would be safely discharged to ground instead of dangerously discharged as a spark that could ignite an explosion

One Hundred Megohms: "One Hundred Meg" equals one hundred million ohms or 1.0 x 108. The exponent, 8, refers to eight zeros after the 1. Staticworx® recommends this electrical resistance measurement as the maximum acceptable level for an ESD carpet specification.

(Note: Many ESD flooring manufacturers will recommend electrical resistance measurements as high as 1.0 x 109, (1 Billion ohms or "One Thousand Meg").  However, Staticworx® feels that the gap between 100 million ohms to a 1 billion ohms is too large, (900 million ohms), of a jump in electrical resistance. If the material's electrical resistance happens to deteriorate over time, beginning at 1.0 x 109, it may not provide adequate ESD protection over a long period of time.) 

One Megohm: "One Meg" equals 1 million ohms or 1.0 x 106. The exponent, 6, refers to the number of zeros after the 1. This measure is generally considered the maximum electrical resistance level for a conductive flooring specification.

25,00 Ohms: This is represented by the scientific notation 2.5 x 104, or 2.5 x 10,000 ohms. This is the lowest end of the conductivity range. Anything lower than this range is considered an electrical shock hazard.

Path to Ground: The electrical link between a conductive material and the earth. Electrical conduit is an example of path to ground; the neutral or "green wire" is attached to the conduit and discharges electricity safely to the earth through the metal housing and the pipes, encapsulating the "hot wires." A carpet must contain conductive fibers with external conductivity in order to be attached to a path to ground. Conductive carpet finds a path to ground from the combination of 1) conductive fibers; 2) conductive backing; 3) conductive adhesive; 4) copper grounding strip attached to conduit or building steel. A breach or omission in any of these four mechanisms will result in an open circuit and no path to ground.

Personnel Grounding Device: An electrostatic discharge protective device designed to ground any electrostatic charge accumulated on a person.

Point-To-Point Resistance: The resistance in ohms measured between two electrodes placed on any surface.

Resilient flooring: A type of flooring which designed to be durable, resistant to stains and water, and comfortable to stand and work on. There are a several static control options within the resilient flooring category, at a range of price points. The most common types of resilient flooring are made with vinyl, nitrile rubber and recycled rubber. These materials are all known for being extremely durable while providing some level of cushioning versus hard concrete.  Rubber is especially good for this, providing an exceptional ergonomic walking surface. Another common trait of resilient flooring is resistance to stains, which includes chemicals, dirt, and liquids. Some static control resilient floors can be treated with an upper layer of static free wax to make them even more stain resistant and easier to clean. Resilient flooring resists penetration by water, making it less likely than textile based flooring to become a breeding ground for mold and mildew. Resilient flooring withstands heavy foot traffic. The materials used to make resilient flooring resist scuffing and damage from rolling furniture, dollies, or pallet jacks which are dragged across the floor. Rubber flooring is also slip resistant, making it an ideal solution for wet applications in manufacturing facilities.

Resistance Range: User-specified upper and lower resistance values which define the user-acceptable resistance values of a wrist strap or wrist strap system.

Resistance To Ground: The resistance in ohms measured between a single electrode placed on a surface and ground.

Resistance To Groundable Point: The resistance in ohms measured between a single electrode placed on a surface and a groundable point.

Rtg: This is the abbreviation of resistance to ground. 

Rtt: This is the abbreviation of resistance across the surface at two points.

SICK Building Syndrome "sick building syndrome" (SBS): Describes situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone, or may be widespread throughout the building. In contrast, to the term "building related illness" (BRI).

Static Control Floor: A permanently installed floor material such as tile, carpet, polymer, epoxy, or sheet flooring that controls static charges on personnel, equipment, or other objects contacting the floor material.

Static Control Flooring: A generic term used to describe any form of flooring that is designed to reduce static electricity on people. Static control flooring is available in numerous forms including: carpeting, carpet tiles, vinyl tile, rubber tile and epoxy coatings. A more specific description should be used when specifying this type of flooring. A meaningful flooring specification should always include electrical resistance in Ohms and triboelectric performance measured in volts.

Static Control Floor Finish: A non-permanent coating periodically applied to existing floor surfaces that dissipates static charges by grounding personnel, equipment, or other objects contacting the floor finish or that controls the generation and accumulation of static charges associated with floor materials.

Static Control Floor Mat: A movable island of material placed over existing flooring that dissipates static charges by grounding personnel, equipment, or other objects contacting the floor material or that controls the generation and accumulation of static charges associated with the material.

Static Control Floor Material: A permanently installed floor material such as tile, carpet, polymer, epoxy or sheet flooring that dissipates static charges by grounding personnel, equipment, or other objects contacting the floor material or that controls the generation and accumulation of static charges associated with floor materials.

Staticworks: A flooring manufactured by Staticworx® .

Static Dissipative flooring: Static dissipative floors are defined by a property called electrical resistance. Electrical resistance is measured in ohms. The important parameter for describing a floor is the static control flooring resistance to ground or path to ground. In order to meet the qualification of static dissipative, a floor must have an electrical resistance to ground of ≥ 1 X 106 (one million ohms) AND < 1 X 109. Static dissipative should never be confused with the terms Conductive or Antistatic (sometimes hyphenated as anti-static). Note: The old definition of static dissipative was; A material that can conduct an electrical charge and has an inherent resistivity range between 1 x 104 ohms and 1 x 1011 ohms Sometimes referred to as electrically dissipative. This old definition does not apply to flooring.

Static Control Footwear (shoes): Covering for the human foot that have properties to control the accumulation of static charge when used in conjunction with a static control floor or floor finish, or floor mat.

Static Control Seating: Chairs used in conjunction with a static control floor or static control floor mat that are intended to control the generation, accumulation and dissipation of electrostatic charge associated with the seating.

Static Decay Test: A procedure in which an item is first charged to a specified voltage, then allowed to dissipate to a specified voltage while measuring the duration of the discharge.

Static Electricity: Literally "electricity at rest." Static electricity is the stored energy that becomes dangerous when it becomes an ESD event. Static electricity is the result of the exchange of electrons that occurs during friction between objects. This friction causes the ESD event, which can disrupt production, cause fires, damage computers and sensitive electronic components, cause computers and other electronic equipment to malfunction and lose important data.

Static-Resistant Resilient Flooring:A durable, stain resistant floor-covering with ergonomic features and  antistatic (anti-static) properties. Any resilient flooring material such as rubber, polypropylene or vinyl that will not generate excessive quantities of static electricity. Describing a flooring material as static resistant (or anti static), does not mean that the material can also ground or discharge or dissipate static electricity. A static resistant material could inhibit static generation on people but lack the conductive properties necessary for grounding of static charges. The ideal static control material should be both conductive and antistatic. A term found in Division 9 - Finishes 09650.6 Static-resistant resilient flooring.

Staticworx® Helix Fiber: This is a unique conductive monofilament spun within the yarn bundle. It is used to achieve conductive contact points on the surface of the carpet.
[Also Staticworx® Helix Fibre]

Surface Resistance: The ratio of DC voltage to the current flowing between two electrodes of specified configuration that contact the same side of a material. This measurement is expressed in ohms.

Surface Resistivity: For electric current flowing across a surface, the ratio of DC voltage drop per unit length to the surface current per unit width. In effect, the surface resistivity is the resistance between two opposite sides of a square and is independent of the size of the square or its dimensional units. Surface resistivity is expressed in ohms/square.

Topical Antistat: An antistat that is applied to the surface of a material for the purpose of making the surface static dissipative or to reduce triboelectric charging.

Total Cost of Ownership: The real cost for a product, encompassing materials, installation, maintenance, anticipated repairs and necessary monitoring. For example, a floor requiring periodic buffing and conductive wax applications also requires testing and monitoring after each maintenance interval, to ensure electrical compliance. When maintenance prohibits the use of space, this cost should also be factored in. Monitoring and other hidden costs are often overlooked or ignored in the initial cost analysis.

Triboelectric Charging: The generation of electrostatic charges when two materials make contact or are rubbed together, then separated. Also known as tribocharging. (See also Triboelectric series)

Triboelectric Series: A list of materials arranged so that one can become positively charged when separated from one farther down the list, or negatively charged when separated from one farther up the list. Note: The series' main utility is to indicate likely resultant charge polarities after triboelectric generation. However, this series is derived from specially prepared and cleaned materials tested in very controlled conditions. In everyday circumstances, materials reasonably close to one another in the series can produce charge polarities opposite to that expected. This series is only a guide.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Gases emitted from certain solids or liquids, including a variety of chemicals, which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations are consistently higher indoors than outdoors: often up to ten times higher.

Voltage Suppression: Voltage suppression is a serious deficiency of many static dissipative table covering materials. For example, ESD laminate is incapable of discharging small parts that have become charged. The voltage suppression test determines whether a work surface such as ESD laminate containing a buried conductive layer actually bleeds off the charge from an object placed on the surface or only suppresses the electrostatic field from the charged object. If the surface bleeds off the charge, the voltage on the object when lifted from the surface will be zero. If the surface only suppresses the charge, the voltage remains on the object when it is lifted from the surface.


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